Volume 4, Issue 2, April 2019, Page: 20-28
Social Network, Facebook Use and Loneliness: A Comparative Analysis Between Public and Private University Students in Bangladesh
Bezon Kumar, Department of Economics, Rabindra University, Bangladesh, Sirajganj, Bangladesh
Purnima Banik, Department of Information Science and Library Management, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi, Bangladesh
Received: Apr. 25, 2019;       Accepted: Jun. 3, 2019;       Published: Jun. 12, 2019
DOI: 10.11648/j.ijpbs.20190402.13      View  54      Downloads  18
The study mainly explores the level of real life social network, Facebook use and loneliness of the university students in Bangladesh. In addition, the study examines the factors affecting loneliness of the students. To achieve these objectives, the study uses primary data collected from 380 students and employs several methods. Firstly, the study employs Lubben Social Network Scale and UCLA loneliness scale to measure the level of real life social network and loneliness, respectively. Secondly, the study uses a linear regression model estimated through OLS method to find out the factors affecting loneliness of the students. The study finds that although aggregately students are averagely engaged in real life social network in the study area, public university students are relatively more engaged in real life social network than that of private university students. The study also finds that aggregately students in the study area suffer from loneliness moderately where private university students suffer more than that of public university students. Moreover, the study finds that the level of loneliness is increased by 3.27 and 3.47 if students use Facebook one hour more per day and students read in private university, respectively while the level of loneliness is decreased by 4.61 if the level of real life social network is increased by one. Therefore, the study suggests the students to be careful in using Facebook and to be engaged more in real life social network in order to get rid of the adverse effects of loneliness.
Facebook Use, Social Network, Loneliness, UCLA Loneliness Scale, LSNS, Bangladesh
To cite this article
Bezon Kumar, Purnima Banik, Social Network, Facebook Use and Loneliness: A Comparative Analysis Between Public and Private University Students in Bangladesh, International Journal of Psychological and Brain Sciences. Vol. 4, No. 2, 2019, pp. 20-28. doi: 10.11648/j.ijpbs.20190402.13
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Cacioppo, J., and Patrick, W. (2009). Loneliness: Human Nature and the Need for Social Connection. New York: Norton.
Islam, M. A. and Kumar, B. (2018). The relationship between Facebook use, social network and loneliness among university students in Bangladesh. Conference paper. Bangladesh. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/327623 028_The_relationship_between_Facebook_use_social_network_and_loneliness_among_university_students_in_Bangladesh.
Ahmed, O. (2018). Relationship between loneliness and mental health among first-year undergraduate students: mediating role of timeline browsing and chatting on Facebook. International Journal of Contemporary Education, 1 (2): 86-94. Doi: 10.11114/ijce,vli.2.3625.
Alberti, B. F. (2018). This “modern epidemic”: loneliness as an emotion cluster and a neglected subject in the history of emotions. Emotion Review, 10, 242-254. 10.1177/1754073918768876.
Stankovska, G., Angelkovska, S. and Grncarovska, S. P. (2016). Social networks use, loneliness and academic performance among university students. BCES Conference Books, 14 (1): 255-261.
Wohn, D. Y. and Larose, R. (2014). Effects of loneliness and differential usage of Facebook on college adjustment of first-year students. Computers and Education, 76: 158-167. Doi: 0.1016/j.compedu.2014.03.018.
Saha, A. R. and Khanam, D. (2017). Whether the use of Facebook is a cause or an effect of loneliness. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Invention, 6 (10): 2319-7722.
Nowland, R., Necka, E., and Cacioppo, J. (2017). Loneliness and social internet use: pathways to reconnection in a digital world? Perspectives on Psychological Science, 13, 70-87. Doi: 10.1177/1745691617713052.
Deters, F., and Mehl, M. (2012). Does posting Facebook status update increase or decrease loneliness? An online social networking experiment. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 4, 579-586. 10.1177/1948550612469233.
Scott, G., Boyle, E., Czerniawska, K., and Courtney, A. (2018). Posting photos on Facebook: the impact of narcissism, social anxiety, loneliness, and shyness. Personality and Individual Differences, 133, 67-72. 10.1016/j.paid.2016.12.039.
Masthi, N. R. R. M., Pruthvi, S. and Mallekavn, P. (2017). A comparative study on social media addiction between public and private high school students of urban Bengaluru, India. ASEAN Journal of Psychiatry, 18 (2): 206-215.
Hall, J., Kearney, M., and Xing, C. (2018). Two tests of social displacement through social media use. Information, Communication and Society, 1-18. Doi: 10.1080/1369118x.2018.1430162.
Lim, M. S. and Kiim, J. (2018). Facebook users’ loneliness based on different types of interpersonal relationships: Links to grandiosity and envy. Information Technology and People, 31 (3): 646-665. Doi: 10.1108/ITP-04-2016-0095.
Satici, S. A. (2019). Facebook addiction and subjective well-being: a study of the mediating role of shyness and loneliness. International Journal of Mental health and Addiction, 17 (1): 41-55. Available at: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/ s11469-017-9862-8.
Wang, K., Frison, E., Eggermont, S. and Vandenbosch, L. (2018). Active public Facebook use and adolescents’ feelings of loneliness: evidence for a curvilinear relationship. Journal of Adolescence, 67: 35-44. Doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence. 2018.05.008.
Necka, E. A. and Cacioppo, J. T. (2018). Loneliness and social internet use: pathways to reconnection in a digital world? Perspectives on Psychological Science, 13 (1): 70-87. Doi: 10.1177/1745691617713052.
Ozdemir, U and Tuncay, T. (2008). Correlated of loneliness among university students. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental health, 2 (29): 1-6. Doi: 10.1186/1753-2000-2-29.
Daniel, K. (2013). Loneliness and depression among university students in Kenya. Global Journal of Human Social Science Arts and Humanities, 13 (4): 10-18.
Hon, K. Y. and Chua, B. S. (2015). Are lonely undergraduate students avoiding communicating in real life but vigorous in Facebook? International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 5 (1): 43-50.
Penning, M. J., Liu, G. and Chou, P. H. B. (2014). Measuring loneliness among middle-aged and older adults: the UCLA and de jong gierveld loneliness scales. Social Indicator Research, 118: 1147-1166. Doi: 10.1007/s11205-013-0461-1.
Kiralp, F. S. S. and Serin. N. B. (2017). A study of students’ loneliness levels and their attachment styles. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 5 (7): 37-45. Doi: 10.11114/jets. v5i7.2395.
Basaran, Z. (2016). The effect of recreational activities on the self-esteem and loneliness level of the prisoners as an alternative education. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 4 (5): 1080-1088. Doi: 10.13189/ujer.2016.040518.
Ozgur, H., Demiralay, T. and Demiralay, I. (2014). Exploration of problematic internet use and loneliness among distance education students. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 15 (2): 75-90.
Ilhan, T. (2012). Loneliness among university students: predictive power of sex roles and attachment styles on loneliness. Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice, 12 (4): 2387-2396.
Clayton, R. B., Osborne, R. E., Miller, B. K. and Oberle, C. D. (2013). Loneliness, anxiousness, and substance use as predictors of Facebook use. Computers in Human Behavior, 29: 687-693. Doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2012.12.002.
Zaffar, M., Mahmood, S., Saleem, M. and Zakaria, E. (2015). Facebook addiction: relation with depression, anxiety, loneliness and academic performance of Pakistani students. Science International, 27 (3): 2496-2475.
Kuiper, J. S., Smidt, N., Zuidema, S. U., Comijs, H. C., Voshaarr, R. C. O. and Zuidersma, M. (2019). A longitudinal study of the impact of social network size and loneliness on cognitive performance in depressed older adults. Aging and Mental Health, 1-9. Doi: 10.1080/13607863.2019.1571012.
Blachnio, A., Przepiorka, A., Wolonciej, M., Mahmoud, A. B., Holdos, J. and Yafi, E. (2018). Loneliness, friendship, and Facebook intrusion. A study in Poland, Slovakia, Syria, Malaysia, and Ecuador. Studia Psychologica, 60 (3): 183-194. Doi 10.21909/sp.2018.03.761.
Burke, M. and Kraut, R. E. (2016). The Relationship between Facebook use and well-being depends on communication type and tie strength. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 21: 265–281. doi: 10.1111/jcc4.12162.
Valtorta, N. K., Kanaan, M., Gilbody, S. and Hanratty, B. (2016). Loneliness, social isolation and social relationships: what are we measuring? A novel framework for classifying and comparing tools. BMJ Open, 6: 1-7. Doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2015-010799.
Okray, Z., Direktor, C. and Simsek, A. H. (2018). Social network site usage among adults: social networking status and virtual loneliness. European Journal of Psychology and Educational Research, 1 (1): 11-18. Doi: 10.12973/ejper.1.1.11.
Lou, L. L., Yan, Z., Mickerson, A. and Mcmorris, R. (2012). An examination of the reciprocal relationship of loneliness and Facebook use among first-year college students. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 46 (1): 105-117. Doi: 10.2190/ec.46.1.e.
Balchi, S. and Olkun, E. O. (2015). The relation between loneliness in social life and Facebook usage. 16th International Academic Conference, Amsterdam. Doi: 10.20472/IAC.2015.016.015.
Karakose, T., Yirci, R., Uygun, H. and Ozdemir, T. Y. (2016). Relationship between high school students’ Facebook addiction and loneliness status. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 12 (9): 2419-2429. Doi: 10.12973/eurasia.2016.1557a.
Shettar, M., Karkal, R., Kakunje, A., Mendonsa, R. D. and Chandran, V. V. M. (2017). Facebook addiction and loneliness in the post-graduate students of a university in southern India. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 63 (4) 325–329. Doi: 10.1177/0020764017705895.
Pittman, M. (2018). Happiness, loneliness, and social media: perceived intimacy mediates the emotional benefits of platform use. The Journal of Social media in Society, 7 (2): 164-176.
Jobe, L. E. and White, S. W. (2007). Loneliness, social relationships, and a broader autism phenotype in college students. Personality and Individual Differences, 42, 1479-1489. Doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2006.10.021.
Cecen, A. R. (2008). The effects of gender and loneliness levels on ways of coping among university students. College Student Journal, 42, 510-516. Available at: https://eric.ed. gov/?id=EJ816934.
Russell, D., Peplau, L. A, and Cutrona, C. E. (1980). The revised UCLA loneliness scale– concurrent and discriminate validity evidence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39, 472-480. Available at: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/ 9a8f/3d85de78c2fe20eda64eddfb1edaefa46d24.pdf
Kumar, B., Hossain, M. E. and Osmani, M. A. G. (2018). Utilization of international remittances in Bangladesh. Remittances Review, 3 (1): 5-18. Available at: https://doi.org/10.33182/rr.v3i1.424.
Kumar, B. (2019). The impact of international remittances on poverty alleviation in Bangladesh. Remittances Review, 4 (1): 67-86. Available at: https://journals.tplondon.com/index.php/ rem/article/ view/665.
Holt-Lunstad, J., Smith, T., Baker, M., Harris, T., and Stephenson, D. (2015). Loneliness and social isolation as risk factors for mortality. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 10, 227-237. Doi: 10.1177/1745691614568352.
Browse journals by subject